Nanostructured conductive polymer hydrogels synergize the advantageous features of conventional polymers and organic conductors. We are trailblazing new synthetic methods and modification strategies for nanostructured hydrogels with improved electrical/electrochemical properties as well as mechanical property, and exploring their potential in various technological applications, including: 1. Electrode and binder materials for next-generation energy storage devices owing to large surface area, continuous conductive network and hierarchical porosity; 2. Tunable hydrogels for highly efficient water purification and harvesting technologies, from seawater desalination to atmospheric water harvesting; 3. Scalable, low-cost and versatile biosensor platform for the sensitive and rapid detection of human metabolites owing to high permeability to biosubstrates and rapid electron transfer; 4. Hybrid functional hydrogels with stimuli responsive properties and self-healing abilities.